2) The wall in Central Asia near Bukhara and Tirmiz in a place called Derbent. Another Chinese chronicle tells of a city, a temple and an Iron gate that got its name because of it’s color and iron. Shop Wayfair.ca this Cyber Week for the best Cyber Week Sales On Stair Tread Rugs. Iron Gates of Sogdiana. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Derbent (sometimes "Derbend" or "Darbend") is an ancient city located along the Caspian Sea in what is present-day Russia. “C” shaped scrolls 2. And there is no other passage to enter the lands of Samarkand except through it; nor can the inhabitants of the Samarkand Empire enter the lands of India except through this passage. A small town grew up around this ancient fortress in the 4th century BCE, and it is probable that the Roman general Pompey mentions this same town and fortress in the accounts of his c. 65 BCE campaign to the Caucasus. There was, however, a brief period of 12 years in which the Russians occupied Derbent from 1723-1735 CE. In the middle of this passage there is the village piled above him at the top of a high mountain. For several millennia, the mysterious Surkhandarya has attracted the attention of conquerors, travelers and explorers. Originally, walls of Derbent were made of adobe. Derbent. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). Last modified October 01, 2018. ‘Bring me blocks of iron.’ They did so till, when he had levelled up the space between the two mountain sides, he said, ‘Now blow with your bellows.’ They blew till, when he had made it red as fire, he said, ‘Bring me molten copper that I may pour it thereon.’ Sadly, one of the southern walls was destroyed in the late 19th century CE. 2) The wall in central Asia near Bukhara and Tirmidh in … The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog ) from invading the land to the south. Derbent thus was an essential area in the management of the flow of peoples moving to and from the Caucasus. Unknown February 24, 2018 at 5:39 AM. Derbent is well served by public transport, with its own harbor, a railway going south to Baku, and the Baku to Rostov-on-Don road. UNESCO declared Derbent's citadel, ancient city, and defensive walls to be a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003 CE. Originally 73 defense towers were constructed, and 46 of those were located in a portion of Derbent’s northern wall. This ancient fortress, during the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, was under the control of the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania, which acted as a buffer state between the Romans and the Persians. Reply Delete. License. The Arabs, who took Derbent in 728, made it a commercial and cultural center. Rebecca panels (fancy additions to your interior and exterior) 4. Enjoy the sale all month long! This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Although it was taken once by the Ottoman Turks in 1583 CE following the Persian defeat at the Battle of Torches during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578-1590 CE), it remained in Persian hands until 1813 CE when the Russians occupied and annexed Derbent and Dagestan. Ancient History Encyclopedia. II, p. 111, Vol. Aluminum panels 7. This clearly shows that even up till the third century of Hijrah the Muslim scholars regarded this wall of the Caucasus as the wall of Zul-Qarnain. Probably after 508, though the date is disputed, the long fortification walls at Besh Barmak and Šīrvān/Gil’ginchaĭ were constructed in a combination of mud brick, stone blocks, and baked bricks; as they probably served as models for the massive rebuilding of the fortifications at Darband (Khan-Magomedov, 1979, p. 40), their construction serves as a terminus post quem for the latter. 02 Dec 2020. as a bulwark against northern invaders, survive. They also constructed the Juma Mosque, the oldest mosque in Russia, in 734 CE over the remains of an old Christian basilica. Indeed the high wall was so thick that a cart could be driven along its top. 3. A total of nine out of the original 14 ancient gates survive. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku. 122-125; Mu jam-ul-Buldan: under Bab-ulAbwab). In his two poems about the gates of Sogdiana, Alisher Navoi mentioned and Babur in his work "Babur-nameh". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Although we stock standard sizes and popular styles, scrolls can b… Wiener, James B. Derbent contains two walls that are located approximately 300-400 m apart and extend nearly 4 km (2.5 miles) from the mountain citadel to the Caspian Sea. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description o the sack o Derbent bi the hordes o Tong Yabghu o the Wastren Turkic Khaganate in 627. (2018, October 01). Under Persian Safavid rule (1501-1736 CE), Derbent lay close to the frontier region with the Ottoman Empire and Russia. gorge called Iron Gate - the only year-round passage that supposedly Alexander of Macedon blocked by a gigantic grid to prevent nomadic hordes coming from the north, that from time to time ransacked Sogdiana. Gate of Gates, the Tartars, the Mongols and the Turks as Temir-Kapi, i.e. English Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it setting in a pool of murky water, and near it he found a people. They called the city “Bab al-Abwab” or the “Gate of Gates.” They associated the city with Surah Al-Kahf in the Qu'ran, which narrates Alexander the Great's efforts to construct a gigantic iron gate to keep people from the north out of Persia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 01 Oct 2018. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. Think Again, Moscow Says" -- New York Times, "How has Russiaâ€™s oldest mosque stood for 1,300 years?" 18, Oybek str., Tashkent, 100015, Uzbekistan. It played professionally in 1966–1970, 1992 and 1995–1996. Later, academician Eduard Rtveladze concluded that the Iron gate is a common name for a whole complex of defensive structures formed from both natural and artificial structures, and they occupied the territory between the Buzgalakhan gorge and the current village of Derbent. He holds an MA in World History with a particular interest in cross-cultural exchange and world history. https://www.ancient.eu/Derbent/. Books It was the shortest way to get from Bukhara, Samarkand and Chach (Shash) to Bactria and India, and back from India and Bactria to the Central cities of Central Asia. The best result they achieved was 4th place in Zone 2, Subgroup 2 of the Soviet Second League in 1969. Under Arab rule, the city flourished as an entrepôt on the Silk Road, and the Arabs consistently strengthened and reinforced Derbent’s walls and citadel during their rule of the city until the late 10th century CE. The Arabs, who took Derbent in 728, made it a commercial and cultural center. A.D., and remains of the Caucasian Wall (also called Alexander's Wall), built by the Persians in the 6th cent. VII, pp. 1) The Great Wall of China which was built by the Chinese King Fagfor 3460 years after Prophet Adam was put on the Earth. One of the most interesting conclusions made by the historian Eduard Rtveladze is about the place of refuge on this territory of the father of Roxana, the wife of Alexander the Great - Oxyart. Break Free of the Iron Wall. Following the construction of Derbent's fortified walls by Shah Yazdegerd II (r. 438-457 CE), Derbent withstood numerous attacks over the next 300 years by the White Huns, Khazars, and other nomadic tribes that threatened the Persian heartlands. Throughout its ancient and medieval history, Derbent was only one of two crossings through the Caucasus mountain range, and the city attracted the attention of foreign merchants traversing the famed Silk Road as well as the notice of great military powers. The Kurganzol Fortress as it is called is located east of Derbent in Uzbekistan, ... this is the activity of Alexander in building the iron wall as a barrier to the entry of scythian gog magog tribe (yakjuj and makjuj in al-qur'an). Derbent prospered for over 1,500 years under Persian, Arab, Turkish, Azeri, Mongol, Timurid, and Russian rule due to its position on the Silk Road and geostrategic importance as the gateway to the Caucasus. There is no iron gate there now, but there was one in 7 th century when the Chinese traveler Hiouen Tsiang saw it on his journey to India. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Derbent/. as a bulwark against northern invaders, survive. The city of Derbent is located in southern Russia in what is present-day Dagestan. An impressive mountain wall acted as a line of defense, spreading over a remarkable 40 km (25 miles) in a westward direction away from Derbent and through the Caucasus Mountains. In the "Sogdian rock" he hid during the capture of the Alexander’s attacks of natural fortresses in Sogdiana. Derbent’s old district contains mosques, elegant old homes, and the ruins of a medieval caravanserai. Curiously, Alexander the Great, has been traditionally associated with Derbent and its fortress; he is said to have ordered the construction to defend his newly conquered lands in the south from the barbarians to the north, but there is no substance to this legend. Dhu l-Qarnayn directs them to bring pieces of iron, which are melted in a fire to form a wall that can neither be scaled nor pierced, barring the way between two cliffs. She was described as a beautiful and blooming girl, with whom the General fell in love during a feast, when she led a dance in a circle. The modern name, a Persian word meaning “iron gates,” came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century, when the city was refounded by Kavadh of the Sassanian dynasty of Persia. Cite This Work In Persian, Derbent is formed from the compound of “dar,” meaning “gate,” and “band,” meaning “knot” or “barrier.”. Similar Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains. 4) The wall which is in the westerly direction to the third in the region of the Caucasus. Rui Gonzales de Clavijo, a Spanish diplomat and traveler, was passing through this gate. The Khazars - allied to the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Heraclius (r. 610-641 CE) during the Third Perso-Turkic War (627-629 CE) - attacked and seized Derbent in 627 CE. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Derbent Derbent occupies the western Caspian Sea coast, close to the mouth of Samur River in the South and Rubas River in the North, and the Sukhodol River, which forms the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains. Derbent became a strang militar ootpost an harbour o the Sassanid empire. One of the most mysterious places, perhaps, in all of Central Asia – the famous mountain pass - Iron gate, located in the Baysun district on the territory of the village of Derbent. Derbent was a dependable outpost of the Western world and an impregnable fortress perched on a mountaintop. The Arabs referred to Derbent as Bab-al-Abvab, i.e. The famous Arab geographer Al-Yaqoubi tells about a 9th-century city in Sughd and also mentions this passage. Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary” in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. Cyrus the Great in the Quran is a theory that identifies Dhul-Qarnayn, a figure mentioned in verses 18:83-98 of the Quran, with Cyrus the Great. The main attraction - the fortress complex of Derbent. Geography. The citadel of Derbent is located upon a lofty enclosure of three slopes, and it is protected by enormous walls, which are 2.5-3.2 m (8.2-10.5 ft) thick, 10-15 m (33-49 ft) in height, and 700 m (2297 ft) in length. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Our forged steel scrolls and panels are available in the following styles: 1. Orchards and vineyards are cultivated. Reply. Tuscany panels 5. "Derbent." For the district in Konya Province, Turkey, see Derbent, Konya. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaDhul-Qarnayn with the help of some jinn, building the Iron Wall to keep the barbarian Gog and Magog from civilized peoples. Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary”... Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and... Construction of the current citadel, fortified walls, and, "Derbent as Russiaâ€™s Oldest City? Construction of the current citadel, fortified walls, and city walls began c. 570 CE at the request of Shah Khosrow I (531-579 CE) who is widely remembered by Persians today as one of their greatest rulers. Although a devastating description of the siege and Derbent’s fall is imparted by the 10th-century CE Armenian historian Movses Kaghankatvatsi in his The History of the Country of Albania, the Khazars soon lost Derbent themselves to the Arabs c. 643 CE. He saw two folding gates cased with iron and hung with bells. Derbent remained relatively prosperous as it changed hands from the Arabs to the Seljuk Turks to the Azeris to the Mongols and Timurids, and back to the Persians over the course of seven centuries. It was the Greek historian Herodotus who first mentioned Derbent's unusual geographical features in his writings about Scythian activities in the Near East; however, archaeologists working in the 1970s CE have shown that the hilltop on which Derbent's citadel now rests has been settled since the 8th century BCE. The Iron gate has been repeatedly mentioned in written sources of Chinese, Central Asian, and Arab historians and geographers.In 630, Xuanzang described in his notes the gorge as a defensive passage covered with iron and locked with a double-leaf gate. The southern region of Uzbekistan is fascinating for its ancient monuments, natural attractions and cultural heritage. The wall in Dagistan Russia also known as Derbent on the coast of the Caspian sea, it is a border fortress between two walls stretching from the mountains to the sea. Replies. Wiener, James B. For several millennia, the mysterious Surkhandarya has attracted the attention of conquerors, travelers and explorers. B. Cast iron panels Like our balusters, our steel scrolls are made with both round and square material. A strategic fortress at the Iron Gates was established by the Persians in the late 5th or early 6th cent. (AIBidayah Vol. ", Gadjiev, M. "On the Construction Date of the Derbend Fortification Complex. 3) The wall in Dagestan, Russia also known as Derbent near the Caspian sea. These Iron gates owns señor Tamurbek. How ever there was omce a Portal to this part of the Domension which is closed by Dhil Qarmain. Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and it is the southernmost Russian city, lying only 50 km (31 miles) from the border with Azerbaijan. (16th-century Persian miniature)The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog ) from … It is said that when other powerful nations will come to an end, the Chinese will rise and invade the whole world, eating humans. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. In addition, Rui Gonzales de Clavijo mentioned another Iron gate that was located closer to the village of Derbent. Thus the expected Yajooj Majooj wall location by some of the Kings in previous times was stated to be The Great Wall of China, built by the Chinese King Fagfor, almost about 3460 years after Prophet Adam was born. We said, ‘O Dhu’l Qarnain, either punish them, or treat them with kindness.’ Many Jews, Georgians, and Armenians came to settle in Derbent, giving the city a cosmopolitan flavor in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Era. Written by James Blake Wiener, published on 01 October 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Although the area in and around Derbent has been continuously inhabited since at least the 8th century BCE, Shah Yazdegerd II (r. 438-457 CE) of the Persian Sasanian Empire founded Derbent in 438 CE as a fortress city to curb raids from nomadic peoples into the Caucasus from Central Asia. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. And they bring him a large income every year.". The city’s population swelled to about 50,000, and the celebrated Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid (r. 786-809 CE) even lived in Derbent for a short duration. An even older fortress once existed here, and it was likely built by ancient peoples to withstand incursions from the Scythians. In the Middle ages, the pass occupied an important strategic place, as it was followed by numerous trade caravans and troops. Web. The wall of Darial Pass which is between Gorgia and southern Russia in the Caucasus mountain range. The southern region of Uzbekistan is fascinating for its ancient monuments, natural attractions and cultural heritage. The citadel contains a number of important archaeological remains, ancient and medieval structures, and even an Islamic bathhouse. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. ", Cuneo, P. "LE MURA DI DERBENT: Note sulla topografia e la morfologia urbana di una cittaÌ€-stato del limes islamico nell'area caucasica. Excavations on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, opposite to Derbent, revealed the Great Wall of Gorgan, the eastern counterpart to the wall and fortifications of Derbent. He defends the Kingdom of Samarkand from the side of smaler India. James is a writer and former Professor of History. It is also believed that it was in Derbent that Alexander played his wedding with Roxana, a Bactrian Princess. This mountain is very high, but it has a passage through which you can cross it by a cleft that seems to have been made by human hands: high mountains rise on both sides, and it is flat and very deep. The Caucasus Mountains near Derbent are less 3 km (1.8 miles) from the shores of the Caspian Sea, meaning that the mountains almost extend directly to the seashore. Blessed with a warm climate, Derbent is concurrently Russia’s oldest and southernmost city, and it abords the Caspian Sea. The modern city center grew near the seafront, and it expanded rapidly in the 20th century CE. Enjoy Free Shipping on most stuff, even big stuff. He is a co-founder of Ancient History Encyclopedia and formerly was its Communications Director. People have long recognized the strategic importance of the area in and around Derbent. A.D., and remains of the Caucasian Wall (also called Alexander's Wall), built by the Persians in the 6th cent. Derbent is usually identified with Albana, the capital of the ancient Albania. A high stone wall ran down from the city towards the seashore, raising an impassible barrier across the road to Iran and the Roman Empire. It played professionally in 1966–1970, 1992 and 1995–1996. During the wall’s construction in the late 6th century CE, the Sasanians employed dry brickwork and made blocks on lime mortar. And this passageway in the mountains is called the Iron gate, and there is no other passageway in the whole area but this one. A total of nine out of the original 14 ancient gates survive. A strategic fortress at the Iron Gates was established by the Persians in the late 5th or early 6th cent. The gates were a popular subject in medieval travel literature, starting with the Alexander Romance in a version from perhaps the 7th century. Sea Gate, the Russians as Derben, i.e. Durin the 5t an 6t centuries Derbent becomes an important centre for spreadin the Christian faith in the Caucasus an aw. It stands on a narrow strip of land that forms a natural pass (the Caspian, or Iron, Gates) between the Caucasian foothills and the sea. Tradition also connects it to the Great Wall of Gorgan (Red Snake) on its south-eastern shore. These walls also extend nearly 500 m (1640 ft) into the Caspian sea itself to protect Derbent’s harbor. The Persian Sasanian Empire annexed the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania c. 252-253 CE, rendering it little more than a vassal. The Arabs were impressed by Derbent's size and wealth, and they greatly appreciated the citadel and the mighty walls of Derbent. ". Their emergence, which is one of the signs of the Hour. The Dagestani capital, Makhachkala, is located 127.5 km (79 miles) to Derbent's northwest. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Derbent is situated quite close to the head of the Samur River, the Rubas River, and the Sukhodol River within the Caucasus Mountain range. Derbent (English) Дербент (Russ These walls also extend nearly 500 m (1640 ft) into the Caspian sea itself to protect Derbent’s harbor. Wiener, J. The wall, also known as the Caspian Gates, has been identified with two locations: the Pass of Derbent, Russia or with the Pass of Dariel, west of the Caspian Sea. Derbent’s commercial districts lie close to the waterfront and thus between the parallel defense walls. It should be noted that the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania had also acted as a vassal state to the Roman Empire on several occasions as well. Following to Transoxiana to receive Amir Timur, in his" Diary of a journey to Samarkand to the court of Timur " (1403-1406) gave a detailed description of his journey through the gate: "The next day, Monday, we rested at the foot of a high mountain, on the top of which stood a beautiful cruciform building, elaborately made of brick, with many patterns made up of colored tiles. Derbent’s success as a city and importance in history is rooted in its special geographic location. It is near another Derbend in Central asia, Hissar District, about 150 miles south-east of Bukhara. Related Content Derbent’s success as a city & importance in history is rooted in its special geographic location. 78,000), SE European Russia, in Dagestan, on the Caspian Sea. 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